Lower Case  

 
Upper Case  
 
In the Upper Case, ¦ represents single dagger and ¦¦ represents double dagger. Fractions are shown as 1/2 and small caps are A B etc. The « «» » are a three part brace and     are en em 2em 3em rules.  
A different diagram shows the weight of type each box can hold, according to Southward, Stephenson Blake, Atkins, Riscatype, et al. They are describing Upper and Lower cases, rather than a Double (or Job) case, but do state that an English Double would hold between 20 and 25lbs type. Note that if each Upper box really did have 5oz of type, there would be far too many of the less frequently used letters such as Z, compared with the number of E, say.  
Capacity of Upper Case  
 
Capacity of Lower Case  
 
The above capacities are based on those given for example by Southward: Modern Printing (6th edition 1933, edited by Whetton), and Stephenson Blake: Specimens of Printing Types (1950) and thus relate to English, rather than U.S. cases, which are some 65 sq ins larger. Note also that 1lb (ie 16oz) represents 288 ens of 12pt. Thus 1oz would represent 18 ens, 6 oz is 108 ens, 12oz is 216 ens, 32oz is 576 ens, 48oz is 864 ens. In practice, these weights do not match, as will be shown below. Indeed, although the traditional type weight was for 1 square inch being 4 ounces, a weighing of some Monotype cast type showed a square inch as 3½ ounces (or 2½ ounces if spacing material). Interestingly, the maximum weight of a full Upper case, with 5oz in each box, would be 30lb 10oz, too heavy for a total Upper plus Lower weight supposedly being 50lbs. However, if each box contained only 4oz, the overall weight of the Upper becomes 24lb 8oz., thus allowing some 25lb 8oz for the Lower case. The maximum weight of the Lower case, using the quantities shown, is 49lb 12oz, almost the technical combined weight of an Upper plus Lower, which suggests that in practice the Lower will have far less than the weights shown above for each box. Indeed, 6oz of z, say, would be some 138 characters, which are far too many. A scheme based upon weights assumes that type is a uniform weight, which is not necessarily the case, as shown below, and also probably relates to the traditional 1 sq in being 4oz. Yet even Southward commented that type from Figgins was a different weight to that from Stephenson Blake. A problem with a scheme that gives numbers of characters, rather than weights, is that for any given typeface, characters will be different widths, so that a 6oz box would only contain 54 types (of 12pt size) if the width of the type corresponded to an exact em of 12pt. In addition, even though characters may be cast on an 'em' body, the actual set width of the em may not necessarily be 12pt width (of set). Thus whilst 12pt Monotype Old Style and Times New Roman are 12 set, ie the em is a 12pt square, Bembo is 10.25 set, ie narrower, and Rockwell is 12.5 set, ie wider. Therefore, a 6oz box would hold more Bembo than Times, and less Rockwell than Old Style, say. [Obviously, any given box will also hold more 8pt characters than 12pt ones]. Because of all these variables, these schemes can only be a guide to quantity of type. 
 
Upper Case  
Sample made by Haddon (Caxton Type Foundry)  32 1/2 by 14 3/16 ins (82.5 by 36 cms). Inside depth from top of boxes is 15/16 ins (2.3 cms).
The A box is 2 by 1 15/16 ins (5 by 4.9 cms) and holds 264  275 ens @ 9¼oz  9½oz of upright spacing or 140en @ 5¾oz or 68em @ 5¼oz of heaped spacing or 9¼oz of mixed type or 6¾oz of heaped mixed type or 63 ems shoulderhigh spacing @ 4¾oz or 122 ens shoulderhigh spacing @ 5½oz.  
 
Lower Case  
Sample case stamped New Departure  32 1/2 by 14 3/8 ins (82.3 by 36.5 cms). Inside depth from top of boxes is 1 ins (2.5 cms). j box is 1 3/4 x 1 3/4 ins (4.5 x 4.5 cms) and holds 100 ems @ just over 7oz or heaped 57 ems @ just under 4oz or heaped shoulderhigh spacing of 45 ems @ 3½oz or 90 ens @ 4oz b box is 1 3/4 x 3 9/16 ins (4.5 x 9 cms) and holds 210 ems or heaped 123 ems @ 9oz c box is 3 5/8 x 3 9/16 ins (9.2 x 9 cms) and holds 441 ems or 903 ens or heaped 258 em @ 18½oz mid box is 3 5/8 x 1 3/4 ins (9.2 x 4.4 cms) and holds 210 ems or 430 ens e box is 3 5/8 x 5 7/16 ins (9.2 x 13.8 cms) and holds 1397 ens or heaped 787 ens @ 29½oz  
 
California Job Case  
Sample case maker unknown, possibly StephensonBlake or Cefmor  32 1/8 by 16 1/2 ins by 1 3/8 ins (81.5 by 42 by 3.5 cms). Inside depth from top of boxes is 7/8 ins or 2.3 cms. e box 2 1/4 by 6 ins (5.8 by 16 cms) and holds 494 ems or 1026 ens or heaped 340 ems @ 25oz b box is 1 by 4 1/4 ins (2.7 by 10.5 cms) and holds 150 ems or 300 ens or heaped 80 ems @ 5½oz or 172en @ 6¾oz c box is 2 1/4 by 4 1/4 ins (5.8 by 10.5 cms) and holds 325 ems or 675 ens or heaped 201 ems @14oz j box is 1 by 2 ins (2.7 by 5.2) and holds 72 ems or 144 ens or heaped 39 ems @ 2¾oz or 75 ens @ 3oz and holds shoulderhigh spacing of 32 ems @ 2½oz or 60 ens @ 2¾oz $ box is 1 1/4 by 2 ins (3.1 by 5 cms) and holds 77 ems or 161 ens or heaped 50 ems @ 3½oz A box is 1 1/4 x 3 3/16 ins (3.1 by 8.8 cms) and holds 140 ems or 287 ens or heaped 85 ems @ 5¾oz  
 
(Improved) Double Case  
Sample made by Joyce  32 1/2 by 14 1/4 ins (82.5 by 36.2 cms) e box is 2 5/16 by 5 7/16 ins (6 by 13.9 cms) and holds 434 ems or 882 ens or heaped 278 ems @ 19¾oz b box is 1 1/8 by 3 1/2 ins (2.9 by 9 cms) and holds 126 ems or 273 ens or heaped 73 ems @ 5½oz c box is 2 5/16 by 3 1/2 ins (6 by 9 cms) and holds 140 ems or 294 ens or heaped 163 ems @ 11¼oz j box is 1 1 1/8 by 23/32 ins (2.9 by 4.4 cms) or 1 1/8 by 1 11/16 ins (2.9 by 4.3 cms) and holds 60 ems or 130 ens or heaped 36 ems @ 2½oz or 59 ens @ 2¾oz or heaped shoulderhigh spacing of 27 ems @ 2oz or 51 ens @ 2¼oz £ box is 1 1/4 by 1 3/8 ins (3.3 by 3.5 cms) and holds 56 ems or 120 ens or heaped 27ems @ 2oz or heaped 59 ens @ 2½oz A box is 1 1/4 x 2 3/8 ins (3.3 by 6 cms) and holds 91 ems or 202 ens or heaped 56 ems @ 4oz  
Some weights of spacing on various occasions and with various stock  
½ oz = 7, 8, 8, 8, 9 ems (average 8) 1 oz = 14, 15, 16, 17, 16, 16, 15 ems (average 16) 2 oz = 27, 28, 29, 31, 31 (average 30) ems 2½ oz = 36 ems (ie 1 sq inch) 2¾ oz = 39, 40 ems 3 oz = 42, 45 ems 3½ oz = 50 ems 3¾ oz = 51 ems 4 oz = 56, 57, 58, 59, 60 ems (average 58) 5 oz = 70, 72 ems 5¼ oz = 68 ems 5½ oz = 77 ems 5¾ oz = 85 ems 6 oz = 88, 91 ems 7 oz = 98 ems 9 oz = 123 ems 10 oz = 136, 142 ems 11½ oz = 167 ems 14 oz = 201 ems 18½ oz = 258 ems 20 oz = 282 ems 25 oz = 340 ems ½ oz = 14 ens 1 oz = 24, 25, 27, 28, 27, 28, 27, 28 ens (average 27) 2 oz = 49, 55, 54 ens (average 53) 2¾ oz = 72 ens (ie 1 sq inch) 3 oz = 75, 78, 80 ens (average 78) 4 oz = 99, 111, 112, 104 ens (average 107) 4¼ oz = 105 ens 6¾ oz = 172 ens 8 oz = 198 ens 9 oz = 261 ens 9¼ oz = 264 ens 9½ oz = 275 ens 10 oz = 249 ens 11 oz = 270 ens 14 oz = 356 ens 14½ oz = 367 ens  10 ems = ½ oz 20 ems = 1¼ oz 30 ems = 2 oz 40 ems = 2¾ oz 50 ems = 3½ oz 60 ems = 4¼ oz 70 ems = 5 oz 80 ems = 5½ oz 100 ems = 6¼, 6¾, 7 oz 200 ems = 14 oz 50 ens = 2 oz 80 ens = 3 oz 100 ens = 4 oz 120 ens = 4½ oz 130 ens = 5¼, 5 oz 140 ens = 5¾, 5½ oz 150 ens = 8, 5¾ oz 160 ens = 6 oz 170 ens = 6½ oz 180 ens = 7 oz 190 ens = 7¼ oz 200 ens = 8, 10, 7½ oz 210 ens = 8 oz 220 ens = 9 oz 230 ens = 9¼ oz 270 ens = 11 oz 280 ens = 11¼ oz 290 ens = 11½ oz 300 ens = 12 oz  
Some weights of shoulderhigh spacing ½ oz = 7 ems or 15 ens 1 oz = 13 ems or 24 ens 2 oz = 26 ems or 46 ens 2¾ oz = 36 ems (ie 1 sq inch) 3¼ oz = 72 ens (ie 1 sq inch) 4 oz = 52 ems or 91 ens 4½ oz = 60 ems  Some weights of S.Blake Engravers Shaded No.3 10 A = 1 oz 20 A = 2 oz 30 A = 3 oz 34 A = 3½ oz  
Some weights of one square inch of 12pt type (or 36 ems or 72 ens) One square inch of shoulderhigh spacing was 2¾oz ems or 3¼oz. ens One square inch of normal spacing was 2½oz ems or 2¾oz ens One square inch of type (mixed characters) was 3½oz. One square inch of Stephenson Blake Engravers Shaded No.3 (ie 36 A) was just over 3½oz Tradition has four square inches as 16oz, ie one square inch as 4oz. Southward (1904) gave figures for 1 lb of composed matter as: 134 pica ems for Figgins type, ie 36 ems as 4¼oz and 142 pica ems for Stephenson Blake type, ie 36 ems as 4oz  
 
The above weights and quantities are still being investigated, given the variations found. Work needs to be done to fill some of the gaps, and clarify some of the discrepancies, but it rather looks as though there is no easy answer, in view of the number of variables, and the wide margins of error.  
